Adenosine Preconditioning versus Ischemic Preconditioning
During off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB), the heart is subjected to ischemic and reperfusion injury. Preconditioning is a mechanism that permits the heart to tolerate myocardial ischemia. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Adenosine preconditioning with ischemic preconditioning on the global ejection fraction (EF) in patients undergoing OPCAB.
In this single-blind, randomized controlled trial, sixty patients undergoing OPCAB were allocated into three equally-numbered groups through simple randomization: Adenosine group, ischemic group, and control group. The patients in the Adenosine group received an infusion of Adenosine. In the ischemic group, ischemic preconditioning was induced by the temporary occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery twice for a ۲-minute period, followed by ۳-minute reperfusion before bypass grafting of the first coronary vessel. The control group received an intravenous infusion of ۰.۹% saline. Blood samples at different times were sent for the measurement of creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI). We also recorded electrocardiographic indices and clinical parameters, including postoperative use of inotropic drugs and preoperative and postoperative EF.
History of myocardial infarction, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, preoperative arrhythmias, and utilization of postoperative inotrope was the same between the three groups. The incidence of postoperative arrhythmias was not significant between the three groups. Also, there were no significant differences in preoperative and postoperative EF and the serum levels of enzymes (cTnI and CK-MB) between the groups.
Based on the findings of this study, there was no significant difference in the postoperative EF between the groups. Although the incidence of arrhythmias was higher in the ischemic preconditioning group than in the other groups, the difference between the groups did not constitute statistical significance